Thursday, December 22, 2005



This statue of a yogini goddess was created in Kaveripakkam in Tamil Nadu during the 10th century. There were 64 such yoginis worshipped in a practice later incorporated into Hinduism.Main article: History of Yoga Images of a meditating yogi from the Indus Valley Civilization are thought to be 6 to 7 thousand years old. The earliest written accounts of yoga appear in the Rig Veda, which began to be codified between 1500 and 1200 BC. It is difficult to establish the date of yoga from this as the Rig Veda was orally transmitted for at least a millennium. The first Yoga text dates to around the 2nd century BC by Patanjali, and prescribes adherence to "eight limbs" (the sum of which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga") to quiet one's mind and merge with the infinite.
The first full description of the principles and goals of yoga are found in the Upanisads, thought to have been composed between the eighth and fourth centuries BC. The Upanisads are also called Vedanta since they constitute the end or conclusion of the Vedas (the traditional body of spiritual wisdom). In the Upanisads, the older practises of offering sacrifices and ceremonies to appease external gods gives way instead to a new understanding that man can, by means of an inner sacrifice, become one with the Supreme Being (referred to as Brāhman or Māhātman) -- through moral culture, restraint and training of the mind.
Hindu yoga
Bhagavad GitaMain article: Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita famously distinguishes several types of "yoga", corresponding to the duties of different nature of people. Capturing the essence and at the same time going into detail about the various Yogas and their philosophies, it constantly refers to itself as such, the "Scripture of Yoga" (see the final verses of each chapter). The book is thought to have been written some time between the 5th and the 2nd century BC. In it, Krishna describes the following yogas:
(1) Karma yoga, the yoga of "action" in the world (2) Jnana yoga, the yoga of meditation or intellectual endeavor (3) Bhakti yoga, the yoga of devotion to a deity (for example, to Krishna)
PatanjaliMain articles: Patanjali & Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Perhaps the classic description of yoga is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, which form the basis not only of the darshana called "yoga"--one of six such "orthodox" (i.e. Veda-accepting) schools of Hindu philosophy--but also of the practice of yoga in most ashrams (to the extent these can be distinguished). The school (dharshana) of Indian philosophy known as "yoga" is primarily Upanishadic with roots in Samkhya, and some scholars see some influence from Buddhism.
Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras presents the goal of yoga as 'the cessation of mental fluctuations' (cittavrtti nirodha), an achievement which gives rise to the possibility of stable meditation and thus deeper states of absorption (dhyana or samadhi). This requires considerable restraint (yama) and self-discipline (niyama; see below for Patanjali's eight limbs of yoga)). Patanjali's yoga is sometimes called Raja Yoga (Skt: "Royal yoga") or "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"), in order to distinguish it from Hatha yoga. It is held as authoritative by all schools.
Patanjali's text sets forth eight "limbs" of yoga practice. Interestingly, only one of them involves physical postures (and these mainly involve seated positions). The eight are:
(1) Yama (The five "abstentions"): violence, lying, theft, sex, and possessions (2) Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerities, study, and surrender to God (3) Asana: This term literally means "seat," and originally referred mainly to seated positions. With the rise of Hatha yoga, it came to be used of these yoga "postures" as well. (4) Pranayama: Control of prana or vital breath (5) Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): "[T]hat by which the senses do not come into contact with their objects and, as it were, follow the nature of the mind." - Vyasa (6) Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object (7) Dhyana ("Meditation") (8) Samadhi: Super-conscious state or trance

The word "yoga"

The word "yoga"

The word "yoga"--from the Sanskrit root yuj ("to yoke") --is generally translated as "union" or "integration." This may be understood as union with the Divine, or integration of body, mind, and spirit. One who practices yoga is called a yogi or in Sanskrit, a yogin (masculine) or yogini (feminine). These designations are sometimes reserved for advanced practitioners.
The word yoga may also be written יוגה, योग, Joga, Ioga, Jooga, ko:요가, zh:瑜伽, ja:ヨーガ or Yôga.
Yoga and religionIn the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions, the spiritual goals of yoga are seen as inseparable from the religions of which yoga forms a part. Some yogis make a subtle distinction between religion and yoga, seeing religion as more concerned with culture, values, beliefs and rituals; and yoga as more concerned with self-realization, i.e., direct perception of the ultimate truth. In this sense, religion and yoga are complementary. Sri Ramakrishna likened religion to the husk, and direct experience to the kernel. Both are needed, "but if one wants to get at the kernel itself, he must remove the husk of the grain."
Some forms of yoga come replete with a rich iconography, while others are more austere and minimalist. Hindu practitioners of yoga are proud of their religious traditions, while non-Hindu practitioners claim that yoga may be practiced sincerely by those who have not accepted the Hindu religion.
While the yoga tradition remains rooted in the Indian subcontinent, the fact that some modern yogis like Swami Vivekananda and Paramahansa Yogananda came to the West suggests that they saw hope the yoga tradition could also flourish there. Critics of yoga as practiced in the West charge that it is sometimes watered down, corrupted, or cut off from its spiritual roots (e.g. the popular view that yoga is primarily physical exercises).

Common to most forms of yoga is the practice of concentration (dharana) and meditation (dhyana). Dharana, according to Patanjali's definition, is the "binding of consciousness to a single point." The awareness is concentrated on a fine point of sensation (such as that of the breath entering and leaving the nostrils). Sustained single-pointed concentration gradually leads to meditation (dhyana), in which the inner faculties are able to expand and merge with something vast. Meditators sometimes report feelings of peace, joy, and oneness.
The focus of meditation may differ from school to school, e.g. meditation on one of the chakras, such as the heart center (anahata) or the third eye (ajna); or meditation on a particular deity, such as Krishna; or on a quality like peace. Non-dualist schools such as Advaita Vedanta may stress meditation on the Supreme with no form or qualities (nirguna brahman). This resembles Buddhist meditation on the Void.
Another common element is the spiritual teacher (guru in Sanskrit; lama in Tibetan). While emphasized to varying degrees by all schools of yoga, in some the guru is seen as an embodiment of the Divine. The guru guides the student (shishya or chela) through yogic discipline from the beginning. Thus, the novice yoga student is to find and devote himself to a satguru (true teacher). Traditionally, knowledge of yoga--as well as permission to practice it or teach it--has been passed down through initiatory chains of gurus and their students. This is called guruparampara.
The yoga tradition is one of practical experience, but also incorporates texts which explain the techniques and philosophy of yoga. Many gurus write on the subject, either providing modern translations and elucidations of classical texts, or explaining how their particular teachings should be followed. A guru may also found an ashram or order of monks; these comprise the institutions of yoga. The yoga tradition has also been a fertile source of inspiration for poetry, music, dance, and art.
When students associate with a particular teacher, school, ashram or order, this naturally creates yoga communities where there are shared practices. Chanting of mantras such as Aum, singing of spiritual songs, and studying sacred texts are all common themes. The importance of any one element may differ from school to school, or student to student. Differences do not always reflect disagreement, but rather a multitude of approaches meant to serve students of differing needs, background and temperament.
The yogi is sometimes portrayed as going beyond rules-based morality. This does not mean that a yogi will act in an immoral fashion, but rather that he or she will act with direct knowledge of the supreme Reality. In some legends, a yogi--having amassed merit through spiritual practice--may then cause mischief even to the gods. Some yogis in history have been naked ascetics--such as Swami Trailanga, who greatly vexed the occupying British in 19th century Benares by wandering about in a state of innocence.

The Intention of Yoga

The Intention of Yoga

The ultimate intention of Yoga is attainment of liberation (moksha) from worldly suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Yoga entails mastery over the body, mind, and emotional self, and transcendence of desire. It is said to lead gradually to knowledge of the true nature of reality. The Yogi reaches a state called kaivalya or nirvana, where there is a cessation of thought, and an experience of blissful union. This union may be of the individual soul (atman) with the supreme Reality (brahma), as in Vedanta philosophy; or with a specific god or goddess, as in theistic forms of Hinduism and some forms of Buddhism. Proponents of Yoga see daily practice as beneficial in itself, leading to improved health, emotional well-being, and mental clarity. Some skeptics question these claims.
Diversity of yogaOver the long history of yoga, different schools have emerged, and there are numerous examples of subdivisions and synthesis. It is common to speak of each form of yoga as a "path" to enlightenment. Thus, yoga may include love and devotion (as in Bhakti Yoga), selfless work (as in Karma Yoga), knowledge and discernment (as in Jnana Yoga), or an eight-limbed system of disciplines emphasizing meditation (as in Raja Yoga). These practices occupy a continuum from the religious to the scientific. They need not be mutually exclusive. (A person who follows the path of selfless work might also cultivate some knowledge and devotion.) Some people (particularly in western cultures) pursue yoga as exercise divorced from spiritual practice.

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Friday, December 16, 2005

Types of Water Treatment

Water Conditioners:
This is one of the most efficient water treatment method and the water which comes out from them has low sodium diets .it does not contain Lime scales Water which intakes appliances lasts for a longer period. It increases the efficiency of heat. It also the effectiveness of soap, it retains calcium and it is very good for health, it has low running cost. The disadvantage is that it wont treats any specific hard water problems
Water softeners:
The water softeners takes off lime scale, it brings up heating efficiency and it increases the life span of clothes.

Activated carbon water filters:

They are good in removing chlorine from the water and they are also efficient in removing organic efficiency. This filtration does not deal with microbes, sodium, nitrates, fluorides and hardness.Ultraviolet water filters:
These filters have maximum fabrication capacity and they kill 99% of the germs they are passing through. But these filters do not remove dead cells and do not kill other contaminants.

Water Distillers:
Takes away the natural water cycle processes. Distilled Water is very pure and it is free from all the impurities. It has low Filtration Capacity and high running cost.


The process of separating liquids through differences in their vapor pressures is called Distillation. In the oldest method, the concentration of alcohol by the application of heat we get the fermented liquid mixture. Now this method is energy-consuming used for the production of petroleum products in chemical industry and other fields. The chemical properties of the mixture are determined by the composition of vapor during liquid mixture evaporation.

Distillation is possible only when the component having higher vapor proportion than the mixture. With other components, the given component having a higher vapor pressure and a low boiling point.

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Monday, December 05, 2005

Property Auctions

uk Property auctions used to be rather dedicated events, but now they have become quite mainstream in the UK. They seem to attribute on TV all the time.

All sorts of different types of properties are sold at auction these days. I've seen the whole thing from the pristine and prestige, through the focus ground of properties ripe for restoration or progress, and down to the dregs of the defective and complete ugly.

If you're thinking about invest in property, it will be useful getting hold of auction catalogues for your area, even if you don't plan to actually buy through property auctions. Study what's offered. Even better, view some properties and attend some auctions, as this will facilitate you cross-check the prices being asked by estate agents.

As a buyer, the auction route can offer you the occasion to get a good deal.