Monday, May 28, 2007


Calcutta is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. The city has a population of almost 11 million, with an extended metropolitan population of over 14 million, making it the third-largest urban agglomeration and the third-largest city in India.

The city was very populated and served as the capital of India during the British Raj until 1911. Once the centre of modern education, science, culture and politics in India, Kolkata witnessed economic stagnation in the years following India's independence in 1947. However, since the year 2000, an economic rejuvenation has arrested the morbid decline, leading to a spurt in the city's growth. Like other large cities, Kolkata continues to struggle with urbanisation problems like poverty, pollution and traffic congestion.

A vibrant city with a distinct socio-political culture, Kolkata is noted for its revolutionary history, ranging from the Indian struggle for independence to the leftist and trade union movements.

Thursday, May 24, 2007


Hyphy is a style of music and dance primarily associated with the Bay Area hip hop culture. Although the hyphy movement started in the early '90s, it began to emerge in the early 2000s as a response from Bay Area rappers next to commercial hip hop for not acknowledging the Bay for setting trends in the hip hop industry.Although the "hyphy movement" has just newly seen light in mainstream America, it has been a long standing and evolving culture in the Bay Area. Bay Area rapper Keak Da Sneak takes credit for coining the term when, as a young boy, his mother would often tell him he was hyperactive. He would repeat the word "hyper" as "hyphy".

Hyphy music is illustrious by gritty, pounding rhythms and in this sense can be associated with the Bay Area as crunk music is to the South; however, contrary to popular belief, the musical aspect of the Hyphy movement has very few similarities to crunk music as it is dictated by more up-tempo beats. An individual is said to "get hyphy" when they act or dance in an overstated and ridiculous manner. Those who consider themselves part of the Hyphy movement would describe this behavior as acting "stupid" or "going dumb." In contrast to much of popular American culture where these phrases would be considered negative or even insulting, Hyphy is illustrious by taking this kind of behavior as a form of pride

Sunday, May 20, 2007

Scientific Methods

The scientific method seeks to explain the complexities of nature in a replicable way, and to use these explanations to construct useful predictions. It provides an objective method to find solutions to problems in a number of scientific and technological fields. Often scientists have a predilection for one outcome over another, and scientists are conscientious that it is vital that this preference does not bias their interpretation. A strict following of the scientific method attempts to minimize the pressure of a scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment. This can be achieved by correct experimental design, and a thorough peer assessment of the experimental results as well as conclusions of a study.

Scientists use models to refer to a explanation or depiction of something, specifically one which can be used to construct predictions that can be tested by experiment or observation. A hypothesis is a disputation that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by experiment. A theory, in the context of science, is a logically self-consistent model or framework for recitation the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis — commonly, a large number of hypotheses may be logically bound together by a single theory. A physical law or law of nature is a scientific generalization based on a adequately large number of empirical observations that it is taken as fully verified.

Tuesday, May 15, 2007

First stamps

1847 10c, Scott #2Congress finally provided for the issuance of stamps by passing an act on
March 3, 1847, and the Postmaster-General instantly let a agreement to the New York City firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch, and Edson. The first stamp issues of the US were offered for sale on July 1, 1847, in NYC, with Boston receiving stamps the following year and other cities subsequently. They consisted of an engraved 5-cent red brown stamp depicting Benjamin Franklin, and a 10-cent value in black with George Washington. As for all US stamps until 1857, they were imperforate. Although a number of philatelists have studied these stamps for years, much remains unknown about the facts of the original contract, design process, and the printing of these stamps.1 cent, 1851, type IIThe post office had become so well-organized by 1851 that Congress was able to condense the common rate to three cents, necessitating a new issue of stamps. Values integrated a 1c profile of Franklin in blue, a 3c profile of Washington in red brown, a 5c portrait of Thomas Jefferson, and portraits of Washington for 10c green and 12c black values. The 1c stamp achieved disrepute, at least among philatelists, because production problems led to considerable plate modifications, and there are no less than seven major varieties, ranging in price from $100 to $200,000, and sharp-eyed collectors occasionally find the rare types going unrecognized.Civil war The outbreak of the American Civil War threw the postal system into turmoil. On April 13, 1861 John H. Reagan, postmaster-general of the Confederate States of America, ordered local postmasters to return their US stamps to Washington DC, while in May the Union decided to withdraw and invalidate all existing US stamps, and to issue new stamps. Associate post offices were left without genuine stamps for several months, and while many reverted to the old system of cash payment at the post office, over one hundred post offices across the South came up with their own temporary issues. Many of these are quite rare, with only single examples existing of some types. Ultimately the Confederate government issued its own stamps; see stamps and postal history of the Confederate States.

Saturday, May 12, 2007

Butter cream

Butter cream or buttercream or mock cream is a type of icing used in cakes, as a coating, and as decoration. In its simplest form, it is made by creaming butter with icing sugar, though other fats can be used, such as margarine or even avocado. Colourings and flavorings are often added, such as cocoa powder or vanilla extract.
A notable use of buttercream is in butterfly cakes, though it is popular as a topping for many other forms of Victoria sponge.

Monday, May 07, 2007

Solar System

solar system consists of the Sun and the supplementary celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 162 known moons,three at present recognized dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids and interplanetary dust.
In broad terms, the charted regions of the Solar System consist of the Sun, four terrestrial inner planets, an asteroid belt composed of small rocky bodies, four gas giant outer planets, and a second belt, called the Kuiper belt, collected of icy objects. Beyond the Kuiper belt lies the dotted disc, the heliopause, and ultimately the hypothetical Oort cloud.

Wednesday, May 02, 2007


Artist amp refers to a postage stamp-like art form. It is similar to a Cinderella stamp, in that it is not valid for postage, but it differs from a forgery or a bogus stamp in that no intention is made to fool any post office or collector of stamps. The artist amp is intended to be a miniature art form which can depict or remember any subject its creator chooses.

Techniques for the creation of artist amps may or may not include perforating the boundaries of the piece to more resemble a stamp, as well as applying gum to the reverse side of the paper. Whole sheets of such stamps are often made at one time. The artwork can be hand-drawn or painted, lithographed or offset-printed, photographed, Xeroxed, rubber stamped, or even output by computer-driven printer.

Creators of art within this genre include Donald Evans, Anna Banana, Steve Smith and the surprisingly prolific New Zealander Bruce Henderson. Henderson's output spans more than three decades and encompasses an entire alternative universe of artist amp countries. These include the Sultanate of Occussi-Ambeno, the Kingdom of all the Sedan, the Sultanate of Upper Yafa, the People's Republic of Kemp land, the Free Vineland Republic, the Republic of Liegerland, the Republic of Port Maria, Tui Tui, Aldabra, Karenni, Raoul, the Land of Muggy, Terra Candella, Cryonica, Aramoana, Whangamomona, Laré, Nova Arcadia, the Antarctic Confederation and the Khanate of Bokhara. Henderson's artist amp world even has its own imaginary "United Nations," the "International Council of Independent States". His creations are sometimes identified as micro nations, however, being completely imaginary and without "participants", they do not fit the definition.