Monday, February 26, 2007


A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels bachelor, master, and doctorate in a variety of subjects. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. The word university is resultant from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning community of masters and scholars.
Because of the above definition, there is some controversy concerning which is the world's oldest university.
If we consider a university as a corporation of students, then Plato's Academy is the first historically known university. The original Latin word "universitas", first used at the time of renewed interest in Classical Greek and Roman tradition, tried to reflect this feature of Academy. If we consider university simply as a higher education institution, then it could be Shangyang, which was founded before the 21st c. BC in China, if it is not a just myth. In the western world, the choice is between Takshashila, Nalanda, Ratnagiri University and Al-Azhar University.

Wednesday, February 21, 2007


Biology is a branch of science employing the scientific method to describe and investigate knowledge. Scientific theories are based on scientific explanation, and these theories are sometimes advanced as new scientific information is compiled. Scientific theories can also be used to foresee phenomena that has not yet been observed. Biological systems are sometimes statistically modeled, but as in other branches of science, theories are not always described with mathematics.
The biological sciences are characterized and incorporated by several major underlying principles and concepts: universality, evolution, diversity, continuity, genetics, homeostasis, and interactions.
Many of the associate disciplines of biology, such as botany, zoology, and medicine are ancient. However, biology as a unified science first developed in the nineteenth century, as scientists exposed that all living things shared certain fundamental characteristics and were best studied as a whole. Today biology is one of the most important scientific fields. Over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals, and biology is a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world.

Thursday, February 15, 2007


Music is composed and performed for several purposes, ranging from aesthetic satisfaction, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment creation for the marketplace. Amateur musicians compose and make music for their own pleasure, and they do not attempt to take their income from music. Professional musicians are engaged by a range of institutions and organizations, with equipped forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film making companies, and music schools. As well, professional musicians work as freelancers, seeking contracts and arrangements in a variety of settings.
Although amateur musicians vary from professional musicians in that amateur musicians have a non-musical source of income, there are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musical group take lessons with professional musicians. In community settings, highly developed amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur musicians reach a professional level of competence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings.
A difference is often made between music performed for the advantage of a live audience and music that is performed for the use of being recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and spread (or broadcast).

Thursday, February 08, 2007


Software basically is the distinct image or representation of physical or material position that constitute configuration to or functional identity of a machine, usually a computer. As a substance of memory, software in principle can be changed without the alteration to the static paradigm of the hardware thus without the remanufacturing thereof. generally software is of an algorithmic form which translates into being to a progression of machine instructions. Some software, however, is of a relational form which translate into being the map of a recognition network.
Software is a program that enables a computer to achieve a specific task, as contrasting to the physical components of the system (hardware). This include application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to achieve a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run suitably, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.
The term "software" was first used in this intellect by John W. Tukey in 1957. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer program. The perception of reading different sequences of instructions into the memory of a apparatus to control computations was invented by Charles Babbage as part of his difference engine. The theory that is the source for most modern software was first projected by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem.
TypesPractical computer systems partition software into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the division is subjective, and often blurred.
* System software is one of the major class helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes working systems, device drivers, analytical tools, servers, windowing systems, utilities and more. The intention of systems software is to protect the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of theexacting computer complex being use, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory procedure as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.
* Programming software usually provide tools to support a programmer in writing computer programs and software with different programming languages in a more suitable way.The tools comprise text editors, compilers, interpreters, linkers, debuggers, and so on, An incorporated development environment (IDE) merge those tools into a software bundle, and a programmer may not need to type various command for compiling, interpreter, debugging, tracing, and etc., because the IDE typically has an sophisticated graphical user interface, or GUI.
* Application software allows humans to complete one or more explicit (non-computer related) tasks. typical applications include manufacturingautomation, business software, educational software, medical software, databases and computer games. Businesses are possibly the biggest users of application software, but approximately every field of human action now uses some form of application software. It is used tocomputerizeall sorts of functions.

Sunday, February 04, 2007

The Real Miracle

As far as Miracles is concern, turning salty seawater in to sweet water is quite amazing. Regardless of the scientific clarification being doled out—surplus freshwater flowing from the Mahim River into the sea—the thousand mass to Mahim Creek near the beachfront in Mumbai will pretty see the ‘transubstantiation’ as the deed of the late Haji Maqdoom Baba, whose shrine is in the area. Mass hysteria, of course, is only a term to clarify the hordes of believers filling plastic bottles and drinking the water. But the real miracle would be if those glugging the ‘miraculous’ water manages to flee succumbing to serious gastric illness.
The water of Mahim Creek, sweetened or otherwise, is dirty and would scandalize not only the likes of Sunita Narain of the Centre for Science and Environment. Maharashtra Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh and officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai have already request to people not to drink the water. Industrial waste is not the finest ingredient for a miracle. But telling this to goggle-eyed people facing even more goggle-eyed TV cameras is as worthwhile as persuasive people that a Ganesh idol sipping milk is caused by suction and not godly lactose tolerance.
Fortunately, rumors of the sweetened water turning back to its original brackish form might stop a future surge. Now we only wait for the real miracle of no one complaining of sickness.